Friday, May 24, 2024



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Second-Class Citizen depicts ordinary Africans who are naturally blacks, and explores, how the fact of their race inhibits them from enjoying a glorious stay in a foreign land. The title of the novel “Second Class Citizen refers to a substandard, inferior, and black citizen in the novel, the fact that there are second-class citizens and first-class citizens makes racism and identity crisis evident in the novel. The former is associated with the British people, who stand the chance of becoming a partaker of everything the society offers, while the latter which is black (Africans to be precise) have their choices limited. They are not allowed to live with their white counterparts, which is a white dominant community. The blacks are forced to live in slums, while menial jobs are meant for them.

For example, Adah and her family make the theme of racial discrimination and prejudice prominent in the novel as an issue that she tries to avoid all to no avail. Adah’s first encounter with race relations occurs when they are still at Ashdown Street, when she is served a notice to quit the house. It reads “No meandering A solicitor representing their landlord, would like them to quit and give up all claims to the tenancy of their one room. This is not because she had a problem with her fellow tenants or the landlady, as she has done everything to avoid any clash or confrontation with them. Some of the things working against her and the family include: They are blacks. Nigerian to be precise.

Adah has refused to send her children to nursery like everyone else in England. Also, they are Ibos, the hated people because they believe in their own ideologies. The landlady is aware that Adah is expecting a third child and the fact that Vicky has cheated death “Adah is expecting a third child and the fact that Vicky has cheated death “Adah and her husband must go” the landlady affirms. Their search for a new accommodation yields no result. Nearly all the vacant spaces they come across bear an inscription. “Sorry, No colored” no them.

Adah’s house hunting is made more difficult because of racism and identity crisis, for she is black, with two children, and pregnant with another. Race relation has taught her a lesson that her color is something she should be ashamed of. She was never aware of this at home in Nigeria, even when in the midst of whites. As racism is beginning to have a serious psychological effect on her, she vows never to measure up with the white folks-but to live a low lifestyle, and also stop looking for accommodation in a clean, desirable neighborhood. She is now learning to suspect anything beautiful and pure because those things are for the white, not the blacks.

Also, the effect of racial discrimination has made Adah a liar and deceiver such that she had to change her Nigerian-born accent so as to sound like a white lady in order to secure accommodation. Both Adah and Francis still have to visit the white landlady to conceal their black colors and identify without result. It is also the effect of racism that makes Francis burns the manuscript of Adah’s first novel. The Bride Price because he feels that Adah is black, and the writing career is meant for the white alone.
[12/8, 10:04 AM] Marita, Jr.: *NECO GCE LITERATURE*

Trudy is a British woman who is a child daily minders. She is introduced to Adah by Babalola, her own compatriot.
Her job is to dress children and take care of them before their parents call for them. She is clean and well dressed and very friendly outwardly, but a dirty woman to the core. Her house, like all the houses in that area, is a slum-a house that has been condemned ages ago. The back yard is filled with rubbish, broken furniture, and very near an uncovered dustbin is a toilet.

The novel delves into the cultural clashes that arise as Adah, originally from Nigeria, navigates her life in the United Kingdom. Trudy, as a representation of Western societal norms, clashes with Adah’s cultural background, creating tension and highlighting the challenges faced by immigrants in adapting to a new cultural context

Trudy’s character becomes a catalyst for Adah’s quest for independence and empowerment. Adah’s experiences with Trudy prompt her to question traditional gender roles and societal expectations. Adah’s determination to break free from the constraints imposed by Trudy becomes a driving force in her journey toward self-actualization.

Adah decides to visit her children one day unannounced and she meets her two children in the refuse dump area. Vicky is busy pulling rubbish out of the bin and Titi is washing her hands and face with the water leaking from the toilet. A few days later, Vicky fells sick and he’s diagnosed with a virus called meningitis. The chance of his survival is very slim. When confronted to inquire about the outcome of the disease. She lies about it, and the council removes her name from the list of approved child-minders. Trudy therefore, is also a cheat, a liar, and her personality a sort of vulgarity.
[12/8, 10:04 AM] Marita, Jr.: *NECO GCE LITERATURE*

In “Invisible Man,” the theme of Africa disunity is subtly woven into the narrative, reflecting the broader challenges faced by the protagonist, an ambitious young man navigating a broken system that rejects and turns hostile towards him. The narrator’s dream to uplift the conditions of the black race becomes a poignant metaphor for the dashed hopes and shattered expectations of a generation aspiring for progress in what they believed would be an increasingly equitable society.

The character of the ex-doctor from the mental hospital serves as a poignant reflection of these dashed ambitions. Despite achieving recognition in France, he confronts the harsh reality that true respect eludes him due to his race. This experience renders him nameless and stripped of dignity, epitomizing the broader struggles faced by individuals attempting to rise above societal prejudices.

Upon joining the Brotherhood, the narrator initially perceives a pathway to recognition. However, he soon realizes that the organization’s actions are designed to maintain the status quo and prevent genuine advancement. The irreconcilable differences within the Brotherhood, coupled with racial biases, thwart the narrator’s ambitious dreams, culminating in a betrayal that sparks a riot.

The riot at the novel’s conclusion underscores the manipulation and exclusion the narrator faces within the Brotherhood. He recognizes that he has been deliberately kept uninformed to incite the riot without interference, highlighting the systemic barriers hindering progress. The narrator’s retreat into isolation symbolizes the final stage of his disillusionment, a manifestation of both ambition and profound disappointment.

By secluding himself in the metaphorical hole, the narrator grapples with his ambition in the face of insurmountable obstacles. His temporary withdrawal represents a complex mixture of ambition and the weight of disappointment, showcasing the internal conflict of a character dissatisfied with existing institutions and societal norms. This struggle encapsulates the broader theme of Africa disunity, as the narrator contends with a fractured world that impedes his pursuit of genuine progress.
[12/8, 10:05 AM] Marita, Jr.: (5ai)

Phototropism is a biological process where plants grow towards a light source. In this case, the dark box with a hole allowed light to enter from one side only. The seedlings detected the light and responded by growing and bending towards the direction of the hole. This directional growth is a result of differential cell elongation on the side of the seedling away from the light, causing it to bend towards the light source.

Without a hole, the seedlings would not receive directional light cues, and their growth would likely be more random and not oriented towards a specific direction. The seedlings might exhibit a more upright and uniform growth pattern.

The balance of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and oxygen (O₂) in an ecosystem is maintained through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. During photosynthesis, plants and some microorganisms take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, contributing to an increase in atmospheric oxygen. On the other hand, during respiration, organisms consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The overall balance between these processes helps to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ecosystem.

The Sun

Without a supply of energy, the ecosystem would be unable to sustain life. Energy is necessary for all biological processes, including growth, reproduction, and maintaining metabolic activities. If there is no supply of energy, the ecosystem’s organisms would not be able to function, leading to a collapse of the food chain and the ecosystem as a whole.

(i) Lithosphere:
The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle.

(ii) Hydrosphere:
The hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth, including oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and water vapor in the atmosphere.

(iii) Ecological Niche:
An ecological niche is the role and position of a species within an ecosystem, including its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors. It encompasses how a species obtains and uses resources and how it contributes to the structure and function of the ecosystem.

(i) Interspecific competition is the competition for resources (such as food, water, and space) between different species in a community.

(ii) The likely reasons for the death of seedlings could include overcrowding, competition for nutrients, water, and sunlight among the maize plants. In a small piece of land, resources may be limited, leading to stress on the plants and increased susceptibility to diseases and pests. The lack of sufficient space for root expansion and the shading effect from nearby plants can also contribute to the mortality of seedlings.
[12/8, 10:14 AM] Marita, Jr.: *WAEC GCE BIOLOGY*


Tabular form

-Adult X-
(i) vitamins
(ii) minerals

(i) glucose

-Adult Y-
(i) carbohydrates
(ii) protein

(i) amino acids.

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.

Adult X, who had a meal of vegetables, is less likely to suffer from constipation.

(i) Vegetables are high in fiber, which adds bulk to the stool and helps in regular bowel movements.
(ii) Vegetables are also high in water content, which helps soften the stool and makes it easier to pass.
(iii) The presence of vitamins and minerals in vegetables helps promote a healthy digestive system and proper bowel function.

(i) White bread provides a quick source of energy due to its high carbohydrate content.
(ii) The fried egg provides protein, which helps in muscle growth and repair.
(iii) The combination of white bread and fried egg can provide a balance of essential nutrients for the body.
(iv) The meal can be filling and satisfying, helping to reduce hunger and provide satiety.

(i) Inadequate intake of essential nutrients: People may not consume a balanced diet that provides all the necessary vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients.
(ii) Poor absorption of nutrients: Certain medical conditions or digestive disorders can impair the absorption of nutrients from food.
(iii) Increased nutrient needs: Certain life stages, such as pregnancy or lactation, as well as certain medical conditions, may require higher nutrient intake than usual, and if these needs are not met, malnutrition can occur.

(i) Stunted growth: Malnutrition can lead to a lack of essential nutrients needed for proper growth and development, resulting in reduced height and weight for age.
(ii) Weak immune system: Malnutrition weakens the immune system, making children more susceptible to infections and diseases.
(iii) Delayed cognitive development: Inadequate nutrition can affect the brain’s development, leading to learning difficulties and impaired cognitive function.
(iv) Lack of energy: Malnourished children may experience fatigue and lack of energy, affecting their overall physical and mental well-being.





Vitamin K






(i) Spinach

(ii) Broccoli

(iii) Kale



(i) Blood typing and crossmatching: To determine the patient’s blood type and match it with compatible donor blood.

(ii) Complete Blood Count (CBC): To assess the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

(iii) Coagulation tests: Such as prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) to evaluate the blood clotting ability.



(i) Two compatible blood group types for a person with blood group A are A positive (A+) and A negative (A-).

(ii) The likely blood groups of the patient’s parents could be A and O.



(i) Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disorder, meaning the gene responsible is located on the X chromosome. Males have only one X chromosome (XY), so if the X chromosome they inherit from their mother carries the hemophilia gene, they will manifest the disorder. Females have two X chromosomes (XX), so they need to inherit the hemophilia gene from both parents to manifest the disorder.


(ii) A condition that would result in a female offspring manifesting hemophilia is if she inherits an X chromosome with the hemophilia gene from her carrier mother and her father also carries the hemophilia gene on his X chromosome.



– Down syndrome

– Cystic fibrosis



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